- A rock formation in Argentina emerges as a crucial economic hope for the country, with vast oil and gas resources;
- Exploration at Vaca Muerta, while promising, faces significant environmental challenges, including water contamination, seismic risks, and impacts on human health;
- The geopolitics of Vaca Muerta have international implications, with Argentina competing with major players in the global energy market and navigating complex trade and political relationships.
The Vaca Muerta region, located deep in Argentine Patagonia, emerges as a crucial source of hope for the recovery of the South American country’s economy.
In recent years, technological advances such as fracking have made it possible to extract oil and gas from these poorly permeable rocks, boosting economic activity in the region.
The exploration of Vaca Muerta not only contributes significantly to the Argentine economy, but also opens up opportunities for the country to achieve energy self-sufficiency and become an important gas exporter in the region.
However, this promising economic outlook is not without environmental challenges and concerns.
What is Vaca Muerta’s history and potential?
The history of the Vaca Muerta formation in Argentina dates back to 1931, when American geologist Charles Edwin Weaver found it in the Sierra de Vaca Muerta. This discovery attracted attention due to the high content of organic matter in the rocks, which made it special from the point of view of potential resources.
In 1946, Dr. Pablo Groeber, while carrying out geological surveys in the Zapala region, reinforced the importance of the formation. He noted that the sediments of the Vaca Muerta Formation were rich in organic matter and date back to the Jurassic era, when what is now Neucano territory was covered by the sea.
Geologists also noticed that as they moved north, the Vaca Muerta Formation gradually mixed with another type of rock that had fossils from a more recent geological time, called the Cretaceous. This discovery helped define the difference between rock layers.
Potential of the Vaca Muerta region:
- Abundant Underground Resources: Vaca Muerta is a geological formation with high potential for oil and gas production. The resources are considerable and have attracted substantial investment from the energy industry.
- Advanced Extraction Technology: The successful application of advanced techniques such as fracking has made it possible to open the flow paths for hydrocarbons in this poorly permeable formation.
- Increasing Activity: Exploration and extraction of resources in Vaca Muerta have intensified over the years. The activity is growing and continues to attract investment and technological development.
- Economic Potential: Vaca Muerta is seen as an economic hope for Argentina. Oil and gas exploration in the formation contributes significantly to the country’s economy, creates jobs and drives growth.
The region’s name “Vaca Muerta” was chosen due to its ability to catch fire easily, due to its high organic matter content. It has proven to be a valuable resource for the Argentine energy industry, especially in oil and gas extraction.
Top Companies Exploring Vaca Muerta
In May 2011, the first wells in Vaca Muerta were drilled, marking the beginning of exploration of this shale formation in Argentina. Currently, 17 companies have a presence in Vaca Muerta, the majority of which are of foreign origin. Of the total, 12 companies operate directly in the Vaca Muerta fields, while another five are partners in blocks operated by third parties.
The main companies are:
- YPF, a majority state-owned company, is the company with the largest presence in the region, with 14 concession areas and nine unconventional exploration permissions.
- Pan American Energy (PAE) is another prominent company, with eight concessions, of which it operates six.
- TotalEnergies, a French company, owns eight unconventional concessions and operates five of them.
- ExxonMobil, an American company, has seven concessions in Vaca Muerta, operating five of them.
- Tecpetrol, an Argentine company belonging to the Techint Group, owns six concessions and operates five of them.
- Pluspetrol holds five concessions in the region, operating four.
- Vista, Shell and Chevron are other foreign companies with a significant presence.
- Gas y Petróleo del Neuquén (GyP) is an Argentine state company in the city of Neuquén that participates in 14 concessions, but does not operate any of them.
- Petronas, Equinor and Schlumberger are other foreign companies that are partners but not operators.
This scenario is dynamic and may vary, with companies seeking to expand their operations in Vaca Muerta and new concessions being awarded, demonstrating the continued interest in exploring unconventional resources in the region.
How can Vaca Muerta help Argentina get out of the economic crisis?
Vaca Muerta and its vast reserve of hydrocarbons – substances that are the basis of many types of fuels, such as oil, natural gas and coal – located deep in Argentine Patagonia, has been a source of hope for the country’s economy.
This rock formation is believed to house the second largest gas reserves and the fourth largest unconventional oil reserves in the world, requiring the application of the hydraulic fracturing technique, also known as fracking, for its extraction.
Despite the wealth of these natural resources, Argentina faces a complex energy dilemma. The country has resorted to importing fuels to meet energy demands, a considerable burden, especially due to the delicate economic situation that includes annual inflation that exceeds 110%.
However, there is a turnaround in sight, thanks to the inauguration of a new gas pipeline. After ten months of construction, a gas pipeline that connects the Vaca Muerta region to Buenos Aires is about to come into operation. This gas pipeline, called Gasoducto Presidente Néstor Kirchner (GPNK), promises to be a game changer in the country’s energy matrix.
The importance of GPNK lies in the fact that it will reestablish Argentina’s ability to produce its own gas, eliminating the need for costly imports.
The Argentine economy has been impacted by the high cost of liquefied natural gas (LNG), an imported alternative that has become necessary, partially due to the reduction in gas production in Bolivia, which previously supplied much of the gas consumed by Argentina.
With the entry into operation of the first section of the GPNK, it is estimated that Argentina will save around US$2.1 billion in hydrocarbon imports in 2023, substantially relieving the national budget. Furthermore, the second section of the gas pipeline, already under construction, will further expand gas transportation capacity.
In addition to achieving gas self-sufficiency, Argentina plans to become the main gas exporter in the region, surpassing Bolivia, which has seen its production decline in recent years. This will not only allow the country to reduce its energy deficit, but also generate significant foreign exchange through gas exports, which have the potential to contribute around US$30 billion per year, boosting the Argentine economy.
This change in the energy matrix can help Argentina face its economic challenges, eliminate its historic fiscal deficit and meet its debt commitments in foreign currency.
However, it is crucial that the government establishes an enabling environment to attract investment into the sector in order to unlock Vaca Muerta’s full potential. Therefore, Argentina’s future and its overcoming of the economic crisis are intrinsically linked to the successful development of this energy resource.
Despite this, in terms of oil and gas production potential, Vaca Muerta is behind countries such as Saudi Arabia, Russia and the United States and Iran, which are global production leaders.
9 Environmental Challenges of Exploration in Vaca Muerta
The exploration of Vaca Muerta presents several challenges and environmental controversies due to the use of the hydraulic fracturing technique to extract oil and gas. Here are some of the main environmental problems and concerns associated with exploration:
- Water Contamination: Fracking involves injecting large volumes of water, sand and chemicals under high pressure into geological formations to release oil and gas. This can result in contamination of underground aquifers and drinking water sources due to leaks and migration of toxic chemicals.
- Impact on Human Health: Exposure to toxic chemicals released during the fracking process can pose risks to human health. These include respiratory problems, allergies, skin diseases and even the presence of heavy metals in the blood of residents near fracking areas.
- Seismic Hazards: The injection of fluids underground during fracking can trigger seismic activity, including earthquakes. This can cause damage to nearby structures and increase risks to local communities.
- Water Consumption: Fracking requires enormous volumes of water, which can exacerbate water scarcity problems in arid regions like Vaca Muerta. Excessive use of water for hydrocarbon exploration can negatively affect local ecosystems and agriculture.
- Soil Contamination: Contamination of agricultural soils and pastures can harm food production and cause long-term impacts on the local environment.
- Methane Emissions: During the extraction, transportation and processing of natural gas, methane leaks, a potent greenhouse gas, may occur. This contributes to climate change and global warming.
- Impacts on Biodiversity: The exploitation of Vaca Muerta can cause loss of habitat and impacts on local fauna, affecting the region’s biodiversity.
- Social Conflicts: The exploration of Vaca Muerta has led to the rapid growth of communities around fracking areas, which can result in social tensions, displacement of local populations and socioeconomic inequalities.
- Energy Policies: Argentina’s continued promotion of fracking and Vaca Muerta exploration raises questions about the direction of the country’s energy policies at a time when many nations are seeking cleaner, more renewable energy sources to combat climate change.
Therefore, while some argue that the region’s wealth of resources offers economic opportunities, others warn of the risks associated with the continued use of fracking and force the Argentine government to consider more sustainable alternatives in the energy sector.
Eventually, a combination of the two arguments is necessary. Using Vaca Muerta’s hydrocarbon production as a source of wealth for Argentina in the short and medium term, but also seeking and investing in cleaner energy alternatives for the long term.
What is the geopolitical importance of Vaca Muerta for the world?
Vaca Muerta, emerges as a region of great importance on the international scene.
The region’s energy wealth transcends the supply of Argentina’s domestic energy needs. It places it in a strategic position of relevance in the global energy supply, especially as demand for natural gas grows, especially in Asian markets eager for cleaner energy sources than coal. In this case, natural gas is a good alternative as a “transition energy source” from the most polluting to the cleanest. For example:
- China: China is one of the world’s largest energy consumers, and its rapidly growing economy demands significant quantities of natural gas to fuel its industries, electricity generation and transportation sector.
- India: India is another Asian nation with rising energy demand, driven by its large and expanding consumer market, along with efforts to electrify rural areas and expand its industrial infrastructure.
- Japan: Japan, although highly industrialized, faces energy challenges, especially after the Fukushima disaster in 2011. This has heightened its interest in securing a stable supply of natural gas.
- South Korea: South Korea is known for its export-oriented economy and high-tech industries. As a result, the country seeks reliable energy sources to maintain its global competitiveness.
- Southeast Asia: The Southeast Asian region, including countries such as Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines, is experiencing rapid economic growth, driving the need for more energy, including natural gas, to support their expanding economies.
In the global competition scenario, Argentina competes in the energy market with giants in the sector. The most prominent competitors include:
- United States: The United States is a dominant force in unconventional oil and gas production. The shale revolution in that country has allowed them to become net exporters of oil, with growing production and relatively low extraction costs. American companies, such as ExxonMobil and Chevron, are involved in the exploration of Vaca Muerta, competing directly with Argentine companies.
- Bolivia: Argentina’s neighbor, Bolivia, is a significant natural gas producer in South America. Part of the competition is related to the search for export markets. Bolivia could supply gas to Argentina, but Argentina’s preference for more affordable alternatives, such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), affects regional competition.
- Brazil: Despite importing a significant portion of its natural gas from Bolivia, Brazil is an important oil and gas producer, with vast deepwater reserves and the Pre-Salt megaproject. Competition here involves the search for export markets, especially for natural gas. Although Brazil is an important producer of natural gas due to its pre-salt reserves, around half of production is directed back to the wells by Petrobras, a Brazilian state-owned company. This reinjection practice is predominantly carried out with the aim of increasing oil extraction, which has greater commercial value. Petrobras justifies the high rate of reinjection based on specific restrictions and the lack of demand in the market.
Furthermore, the massive presence of global oil companies in Vaca Muerta adds an additional component to its geopolitical scenario. The interests of these companies and the home nations of these corporations can exert significant influence on Argentina’s energy and trade policies.
Finally, decisions related to the exploration and export of these resources can influence both domestic politics and international relations, not only in Argentina, but also in Mercosur, South America, and also globally.